How to use indirect in a sentence. In assessment, there are two categories that most test items fall into which are direct and indirect test items. Indirect characterization is when the author shows qualities of a character through speech, actions, dress, thoughts, and interactions with other characters. Direct and Indirect Speech! Learn how to use Direct and Indirect Speech and Tense Changes when using Reported Speech in English with useful grammar rules and example sentences. Components of Direct Instruction 1. Our challenger is Masa from Japan who plays the role of. Indirect questions, or embedded questions, are more complicated ways of asking for the same information, and once your students are at the advanced level they should be able to recognize and use. The direct object in “He hit the ball” is the ball. ” Reported. ” le(s) lo = se lo le(s) la = se la le(s) los = se los le(s) las = se las Double verb sentences. Direct and Indirect Objects Exercise With Answers. Indirect Costs of accidents and incidents. Using direct speech helps your audience understand the frame of mind of the subject. More PDF worksheets: English grammar exercises PDF Printable exercises to download for free. Indirect or Direct Approach for Negative Messages Writing a negative message is still subject to the three-step writing process of planning, writing, and completing as with other business messages. In this list, US-Americans tend to be on the left side, that is, to prefer linear, direct, detached, intellectually engaged, and concrete styles of communication. BBC Learning English – Grammar Challenge Grammar Challenge activities © BBC Learning English Page 3 of 5 bbclearningenglish. Direct costs are usually the cost of insurance increases that you might experience as a result of that accident such as a rate increase due to increased accident frequency or severity and any out-of-pocket costs you have associated. However, we use indirect questions when we want to be more polite or more formal. Channels are broken into direct and indirect forms. Download Objective type questions of Indirect TAX PDF Visit our PDF store «. It's important to know how much. pdf), Text File (. CMA Inter Question Papers Dec 2019 with Solutions In PDF format By Raju Choudhary Last updated Jan 21, 2020 8 The Institute of cost management accountants of India (ICMAI) release CMA Inter Question papers for Dec 2019 Exams, All the candidates who applied for CMA Inter December 2019 attempt can download these question papers for practice purpose. Word Order in Indirect Questions. How much you earn is directly proportional to how many hours you work. This form of interviewing works with fact-based questions and in it’s simplest form is a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ question. INDIRECT QUESTION IN LATIN In fact, this is a very similar construction to that of a Result Clause. (Thank you, Henri for the help) The good news is, it works the same way in French as in English. **Kiran asked me, "Did you see the Cricket match on television last night?"**. Source: Lesson 106. Intermediate (B1-B2) BRITISH ENGLISH This worksheet presents and compares direct questions and indirect questions. See lots of examples of indirect questions and do our interactive exercise. Select 3rd person DO or IO pronouns. The purpose of this classification is to assign costs to cost objects. Enjoy More information Find this Pin and more on English grammar by su war kyaw. "Don't meddle with the things in the house !" mother told Susie. CHARGING OF DIRECT and INDIRECT COSTS under Federal Grants/Cooperative Agreements and Cost Reimbursement Contracts (Rev. Now remember in (2) I said that a book is no longer the direct object of give because the Dative Shift rule makes the Indirect Object into a Direct Object. Reported Speech Yes/No Questions Reported Speech WH-Questions Reported Speech. Direct marketing is used primarily by small businesses. We use them when talking to a person we don't know very well, or in professional situations, and their form is a little different. Indirect Objects An indirect object follows an action verb. 202 MATHEMATICS Similarly, we can find the cost of 5 kg or 8 kg of sugar. National policies and the international investment architecture. 2) Now ask yourself the questions To Whom? To What? For Whom? or For What? about the subject and verb. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech. Whereas, reported speech, also known as indirect speech is when something someone has said is summed up, without writing the speech out fully. Finally, cost finding and analysis are also of value to management in ensuring that costs do not exceed available revenues and subsidies. This is an interactive online exercise about indirect questions including a video tutorial. We also call indirect questions those direct questions preceded by another phrase even when they are not real questions ie. the direct question I put the verb 'is' before the subject 'the bank'. Direct Speech Definition: Direct speech is writing that quotes what somebody has said in full, and is meant to be an accurate record of what was said, and by whom it was said. This post will provide examples of test items that are either direct or indirect items. Direct and Indirect Free Kicks. 1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH When the actual words of the speaker are reproduced, it is called direct speech. In addition to Indirect Rollovers, there are two types of Direct methods to move funds between accounts: Direct Rollovers and Direct Transfers. Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech: When we are expressing words said by someone in the exact wording If question starts with auxiliary verbs such as. Direct and Indirect Objects Exercise With Answers. Direct and indirect speech worksheet for class 7. Write the questions in indirect speech. PP 1 Quoted and Reported Speech Quoted Speech (Direct Speech) Questions us a question mark before the final quotation mark. works cost. One purpose of the present study was to test if the same applies to direct and indirect victimization. Eliminate from indirect costs capital expenditures and those stipulated as unallowable by OMB Circular or program legislation. As Jim put it, an indirect question is embedded within a larger sentence. 1303 times. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Direct question: Where are you going. All variation problems involve a constant of proportion, k. For example: Max pitched Alice the baseball. Some examples of cost objects are products, departments, customers, plant, a territory, a product line and research and development activities of the …. Eliminate from indirect costs capital expenditures and those stipulated as unallowable by OMB Circular or program legislation. Direct and indirect object pronouns in spanish. This presentation provides a thorough explanation on the use of embedded questions in English. Direct and Indirect Speech! Learn how to use Direct and Indirect Speech and Tense Changes when using Reported Speech in English with useful grammar rules and example sentences. New Inside Out Student's Book Upper Intermediate. Show the PP1 slide on quoted and reported speech for additional examples. Common sense, together with the time aspect from the speaker's point of view, are more important than the rules when making the usual changes. Work more hours, get more pay; in direct proportion. Thus cotton is a direct material for textile goods, leather for shoes, wood (or steel or plastic) for furniture, etc. Download CA Final Question Papers and Suggested Solutions For May 2009 Exams. Closed questions are yes or no questions. QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH Direct question: He said, “Where is she going?”. But where do we get the information we need to build these marketing. Direct & Indirect Speech This method is called Direct Speech. Module 2: Direct and Indirect Control in Electro-pneumatics Module Objectives After the completion of this module, the student will be able to: 1- Configure and connect the electrically actuated directional control valves (solenoid valves). In the following table, you will find the different changes of place; demonstratives and time expressions. Direct questions are generally used to elicit information. See the Participant Support Costs guidance document (PDF). Direct discourse / Indirect discourse. The word order of indirect questions differs from a direct question. Advice Read each question carefully before you start to answer it. Direct questions are the "normal" questions that we can ask friends, family members, and people who we know well. June and December. the location and/or the period of time) is different from that of the direct speech. org Indirect Questions Start the sentence with the words given in parentheses. Such taxes have been imposed on sugar, cooking gas, textiles, shoes, petrol, cigarettes, and many other essential articles of consumption. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Pharmacy “DIR” Fees Q. Pay attention to backshift and the changes to pronouns, time, and place. For Example: In reporting questions in the Indirect way the reporting. CA Final Information Systems Control and Audit Question Paper May 2015. Where are the toilets? 1. Reported speech is often also called indirect speech. These methods can include standardized testing, curriculum-based testing, exams and quizzes. Help fill the gaps in your class's grammar by focusing on direct objects, indirect objects, and subject complements. There is only one indirect statement and many direct questions; can you change the indirect. ANSWER: C 24. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Turn the following sentences into indirect speech. Direct and indirect instruction is often used together, even within the same lesson, and you should not adopt one model to the exclusion of the other. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Direct And Indirect Speech With Answer Key. English Grammar Direct and Indirect Speech Online Test. Each slide provides practice for the different rules to be applied. Expenses incurred to sell goods and to operate the business are called indirect expenses or operating expenses. Rewrite the following sentences as indirect speech. This report presents a methodology for the assessment of European Union (EU) policies in terms of their land-related implications in Europe and provides an initial. students have to select correct one option from multiple choice according instruction of question. If you still have any questions concerning these concepts, post a comment to this post. INDIRECT OBJECTS Like a direct object, an indirect object can be compound. This page will help you to understand basics of Direct Indirect Speech with easy understanding. First, direct salaries are actual compensation for services performed, while indirect salaries are a benefit of being employed. Direct marketing is used primarily by small businesses. If you're learning Spanish, the distinction can be important to make because Spanish, unlike English, sometimes uses different pronouns for direct. Give each group of three or four a copy of the game board, a dice and counters. Indirect questions are a little more formal and polite. Question 1: He said to the dentist, "I have a toothache. If or whether are used for closed questions. This could be written: Earnings ∝ Hours worked. Direct questions might be considered rude when speaking to strangers. Then, ask the question “to or for whom” or “to or for what. A quick explanation of how reported / indirect speech works, and then a comic where the students have to convert direct to indirect speech. A direct object is the receiver of action within a sentence. Negative questions: we do not use auxiliary verb "do" except in negative questions. Indirect test items measure a students knowledge about a subject. Copy all the other punctuation correctly. In order to do this, you can use the grammar structure named indirect or reported speech. Direct marketing, like television commercials and magazine ads, allow you to specifically target a demographic with a sales pitch built especially for them. With the help of the direct method of observation, one comes to know how the observer is physically present in which type of situation is he present and then this type of observation monitors what takes place. "Dawn hurt herself during P. In other words, the direct pathway (which turns up motor activity) is excited by dopamine while the indirect pathway (which turns down motor activity) is inhibited. It is probably the most contentious subject under accounting for government contracts. Sebaliknya pada indirect speech, perkataan disampaikan dengan mengubah formatnya agar menjadi lebih jelas, alami, dan efisien bagi. ” Sue asked Pat, “What did you do on Sunday?” “I visited my brother,” Pat answered. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) recommends indirect effects are addressed alongside direct impacts in. Indirect taxes, on the other hand, do not look at the consumer’s ability to pay but is the same for everyone who buys the goods or services. Answers 1 "Where's the station?" "Can you tell me where the station is? 2 "Are you coming to the party?" "Can you let me know if you're/are coming to the party?. For example: Max pitched Alice the baseball. Before giving this worksheet to your students, review and discuss the formation of 'W/H' questions using the past simple tense. They are similar in a way that they follow and give meaning to the subject and verb in a sentence. A direct competitor is a company that offers the same primary services to the same customer base. DIRECT questions WITHOUT QUESTION WORD (closed questions: YES/NO answer) ASI (auxiliary + subject + infinitive/main verb + complements?) Are you living in Lalín right now? Have you ever been to New York? Can you swim fast?. ” Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun. "He said that he loved me. Question 1. For example HP is a worldwide known brand. Previous research has established that direct and indirect forms of aggression differ in their association with gender and type of psychological difficulties. you can score by kicking the ball. Example: Shawn sailed his boat. If necessary we also use a Wh? question word (which, who, what, when etc). With super simple definitions and crystal clear examples, it pretty much spells out the watchword for the little ones in this DO & IO journey. Direct and Indirect questions are used when we don't know the answer and need information. , who,what,if,that) are simply called “words that introduce noun clauses. Step 3 •Divide the total by the direct labor total to calculate the rate. Direct speech When we use direct speech we quote the actual words said by the speaker. Direct and indirect speech exercises for esl. The motivational factor is that once learners are happy with their performance, they then test learners in other groups, something learners tend to enjoy doing. Also, when the direct object is “lo,” “la,” los,” or “las,” and the indirect object is “le” or “les,” the indirect object is converted to “se. The direct object in "He hit the ball" is the ball. Donʼt spend too long on one question. CA Final Nov 2018 Question Papers with Answers (New Course) While students registered under a new course can download FR, SFM, Advance Audit, Laws, direct tax, indirect tax and other papers from this section. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Mindmatrix offers Channel & Sales Enablement software for direct and indirect sales channels. Economic impacts of Tourism Page # 1 Economic Impacts of Tourism Daniel J. DIRECT questions WITHOUT QUESTION WORD (closed questions: YES/NO answer) ASI (auxiliary + subject + infinitive/main verb + complements?) Are you living in Lalín right now? Have you ever been to New York? Can you swim fast?. Active participation includes examination of the patient. We can imagine, for example, a. Direct (open) - Indirect (open) Questions Verb ‘to be Other verbs What is the time? - Can you tell me what time it is? Where does he live? - Can you tell me where he lives? _____ 1. Control affiliates. If you work 2 hours you get paid $40. Direct question: Where are you going. Direct Question: What time is it? Indirect Question:1. Direct Speech - Speech Marks Speech marks (or inverted commas ) show when someone is talking. This form of interviewing works with fact-based questions and in it's simplest form is a 'yes' or 'no' question. In exam, you have to find direct sentence from multiple choice options, because examiners give indirect sentence in question paper, and vice-versa. There are times when we get confused with direct objects and indirect object. The operative word is "specific. ANSWER: C 24. Direct marketing methods include telemarketing, subscriptions and fliers. Indirect rule and direct rule are the systems countries employ during imperialism, allowing the central government of one country to control a colony from a distance. CBSE Class 7 English - Direct Indirect Speech. This worksheet will help you to drill direct and indirect speech there are 3 exersices to drill this grammar aspect. Explanation of postion, and practice of, direct and indirect object pronouns. Determine whether the underlined word is a direct or indirect object. Free download PDF in Direct and Indirect Speech Questions and Answers for SSC Exams in objective types. Tonic Pronouns Tonic pronouns are used for emphasis and in some special situations. Direct to Reported Speech. These costs are readily measurable • Damage to premises, plant and equipment • Sick pay • Overtime to cover injured person • Fines. When you’re using English on a day to day basis, talking about what people are saying or might have told you is going to come up a lot! But there’s an art to it – read on to find out more about how to use direct and indirect forms of speech correctly. 99 - Children's eBooks: $6. We propose flexible estimation strategies for the direct and indirect effect parameters indexing these models, that are easy to perform with standard statistical software: one based on regression mean imputation and one based on doubly robust imputation. I would appreciate your replies to my questions below to help clarify the matter: 1) Does the one year IRA rollover restriction apply to direct custodian, indirect, or both types of rollovers? One IRA Rollover Per Year: Direct vs. In assessment, there are two categories that most test items fall into which are direct and indirect test items. Place, demonstratives and time expressions change if the context of the reported statement (i. They used indirect methods. Unlike English, Spanish also requires the indirect object pronoun when the indirect object is still present in the sentence. BBC Learning English - Grammar Challenge Grammar Challenge activities © BBC Learning English Page 3 of 5 bbclearningenglish. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. Indirect speech is reporting what was said by a subject. Direct and Indirect Speech Exercises with Answers PDF. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. If the direct question contains the auxiliary DO, we omit it in the indirect question. If you're learning Spanish, the distinction can be important to make because Spanish, unlike English, sometimes uses different pronouns for direct. Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect characterization. 5 The interpretation of topical indefinites as direct and indirect aboutness topics; 6 Contrastive topics operate on speech acts* 7 Biased questions, intonation, and discourse* 8 Towards a typology of focus realization* 9 Focus in Aghem* 10 Subject focus in West African languages* 11 Information structure and OV order. As with engineering labor, assure that the offeror is consistent in charging these costs as direct or indirect under similar circumstances. Direct and indirect speech can be a source of confusion for English learners. Inverted commas should be dropped and that should be added. In both sentences, we can omit the preposition: "I give her the book" and "I bought her a book". Expenses incurred to sell goods and to operate the business are called indirect expenses or operating expenses. Prove: do not bisect each other. Label the indirect object with an “IO” abbreviation. With the help of the direct method of observation, one comes to know how the observer is physically present in which type of situation is he present and then this type of observation monitors what takes place. Direct observation of the child. Beware of double charging through indirect TotalCost=Direct+Indirect IndirectRate(%)=Indirect/Direct An organization spends $10 on indirect costs that relate to the corresponding share of a grant with $100 in direct costs. question word + subject + verb + object. "Don't meddle with the things in the house !" mother told Susie. Explanation of postion, and practice of, direct and indirect object pronouns. Indirect or Direct Approach for Negative Messages Writing a negative message is still subject to the three-step writing process of planning, writing, and completing as with other business messages. Tips and Gratuities Frequently Asked Questions. Indirect speech is when we report what somebody has. Home » Topics » Indirect speech » The difference between direct and indirect speech. " (Philippe said, "I'll come if I have the time. Because of this, it can be helpful to give your learners a. Therefore, they. you can read all PDF files online at this site. The introductory pdf. Transform the following direct questions into indirect questions in English. 2) Now ask yourself the questions To Whom? To What? For Whom? or For What? about the subject and verb. Questions are directly asked based on the rules of direct & indirect speech. In other languages, it's possible to use. Download this Article as PDF. Survey of 12 Strategies to Measure Teaching Effectiveness the act of teaching and the variety of direct and indirect sources and tools used to produce the evidence. In a direct question, the auxiliary verb comes before the subject. • Effective Teachers Combine the Best Elements of both Direct and Indirect Instruction. indirect speech. What does “DIR” stand for? A. Además está explicado en español para que lo. End of the free exercise to learn English: Direct and Indirect Speech A free English exercise to learn English. In the second roleplay, you heard Rich interviewing Jack for a job. Look at the following example of a direct question: Where is the nearest train station? To be more polite or formal, ask an indirect question, for example. Cost object means any thing about which cost information is collected. Direct question definition: a question asked in direct speech , such as Why did you come ? | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Compare indirect. complete answers to all of the questions and complete all fields requiring a response on the applicant’s appropriate DRP(BD) screen. As with reported statements, we may need to change pronouns and tense (backshift) as well as time and place in reported questions. Chapter 6 - Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Cash Flows: Indirect Method The indirect method uses changes in balance sheet accounts to reconcile net income to cash flows from operations. , Cost Plus Fixed Fee etc. This is the Verbal Ability Questions & Answers section on & Direct and Indirect Speech& with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. INDIRECT QUESTION IN LATIN In fact, this is a very similar construction to that of a Result Clause. there is no inversion and therefore there bis no "?": I wonder if you could help me with my English homework. I hope to answer those questions on … Continue reading "Indirect cost rates". By the end of this lesson, students will be able to: Form statements in indirect speech. According to the need of preparation we start the direct and indirect mcqs series in which we also describe the direct and indirect speech rules of how to solve the particular direct indirect mcq. Subjects and objects. Turn the following sentences into indirect speech. Condividi questo audio Direct-indirect-questions-Ex3. The conversion of Indirect to Direct Speech generally presents no special difficulties. Spanish indirect object pronouns. However, in actual practice, there are very few items that come within this definition and generally, the heading Direct Expenses is ignored in preparation of accounting statements. Direct And Indirect Objects Worksheets. Mindmatrix is the only provider of a Single Unified Platform that combines PRM software, Direct Sales and Channel Enablement, Channel Marketing Software, Marketing Automation software and Marketing Asset Management. Direct and Indirect Speech (English Grammar) in Gujarati PDF Book is one of the Important topic asked in competitive exams. Direct and Indirect Cash Flow Statements The first step in preparing the cash flow statement has to do with determining the total cash flows from operating activities. If you want to download Direct and Indirect Speech Rules in PDF, you are at right place. For steam humidifiers, this energy typically comes from the electricity or gas being used to boil the water. There's more than one way to ask a question. Indirect: to tell somebody what you have heard or seenDirect speechIndirect speechHe said: "I love you. (15 marks) Marking scheme (a) The first part of this question is designed to test the candidate’s knowledge and understanding. Students will see four pictures and prompts for each picture. With super simple definitions and crystal clear examples, it pretty much spells out the watchword for the little ones in this DO & IO journey. Direct and Indirect Supervision of Student Midwives University of York BA (Hons) Midwifery Practice Programme Frequently asked questions Introduction: Mentoring of a student midwife in practice is often a rewarding element to the role of the midwife. For example HP is a worldwide known brand. This chapter discusses the key concepts within the EU legal order: supremacy, direct effect, indirect effect, and state liability. However, we use indirect questions in a different way from. Indh'ect Object Pronouns 1-10-1 In the following sentences, identify the direct object and the indirect object, Note that some direct objects are under-stood; please identify them. Understand the differences between the direct and the indirect SCF. The English Language has two means to express the words said by a person. We tend to use direct and indirect speech when we want to express the words of another. The most common reporting verbs for indirect questions in English include: asked, questioned, inquired, wondered. Look at the following example of a direct question: Where is the nearest train station? To be more polite or formal, ask an indirect question, for example. Questions in Indirect Discourse 586. john r searle indirect speech acts Ing the question, I will I present an interpretation of Austins speech act. These two variables—whether measures are direct or indirect and who collects and analyzes the data—were chosen because they have strong political and resource implications that need to be taken into account in developing an assessment plan. Further, we use the word 'that' in general, in indirect speech. When you use the direct approach, the main idea (such as a recommendation, conclusion, or request) comes in the "top" of the document, followed by the evidence. They have the same word order as statements and we do not use the verb do to form a question. DIRECT AND INDIRECT TEST ITEMS. Indirect Questions - authorSTREAM Presentation. • Strategies used Effectively will: Foster Motivation, Improve Classroom Control and Cost Less to Implement. In other words an indirect object cannot exist without a direct object. Buy ICSI Direct and Indirect Taxation Law and Practice Question Paper by ICSI PDF Online from ICSI. Not so bad, eh? Direct and Indirect Object Quiz. Take a look at our page on Direct and Indirect Questions in English, then try the quiz below!. Mindmatrix takes you through every step in the sales process from lead to revenue, enabling your salespeople and channel partners to sell more, faster. Direct discourse / Indirect discourse. Explanation are given for understanding. Examples of indirect taxes are excise tax, VAT, and service tax. Direct Object: A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action in a sentence. that school leadership has both direct and indirect implications leading to student achievement. Learn Spanish grammar with our free helpful lessons and fun exercises at StudySpanish. Both of these effects lead to increased motor activity. The direct object is governed directly by the verb, for example, in the following statement: Romeo loved her. Indirect TAX MCQ - Multiple Choice Question and Answer Indirect TAX MCQ with detailed explanation for interview, entrance and competitive exams. Recognize the differences between direct and indirect speech. CA Final Indirect Tax Laws Question Paper May 2015. It completes the action of the verb and is always a noun or pronoun. Direct & Indirect Speech - English Aptitude Multiple Choice Questions Answers for Competitive Exams. Stage 25 Direct and indirect questions In each sentence: • underline the clause which makes up the indirect question, • circle the correct verb, • translate the entire sentence, • write in the bubbles in English what the direct questions would have been. Go through the article carefully. INDIRECT QUESTION IN LATIN In fact, this is a very similar construction to that of a Result Clause. (a) Explain, with examples, the difference between direct and indirect costs. "DIR" stands for "direct and indirect remuneration" and was initially a term coined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) related to the Medicare Part D benefit to. These sections are frequently asked in all Bank Exams Questions and Answers. Second, direct salaries have monetary value, while indirect ones have nonmonetary value. Distinguish between the three sections of the SCF. capitalize did and add an exclamation mark at the end. This meant that he sounded rude and not polite; he probably won't get the job. You can get both 2012 and 2016 syllabus ICMAI/CMA inter model question papers here in pdf format. There are two types of indirect questions. “Did they eat out together yesterday?” He asked me if they has eaten out together the day. Direct: He said, "I am a hockey player. Indirect cash flow statement example method solved problems examples direct. org are unblocked. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object A direct object receives the action performed by the subject. This is very similar to the grammar of reported questions. B: Direct to indirect: Said to should be changed to told. French Direct and Indirect speech Discours direct et indirect In French, there are two different ways to express the words of another person: direct speech (or direct style) and indirect speech (indirect style). Direct Object Indirect Object. Students and parents can download free a collection of all study material. There are three main types of direct question: yes/no questions, question-word questions, and choice questions. Grammar, reading, vocabulary, speaking. 25" at 2 meters (double the distance leads to a quarter of the brightness), and so on. In writing, we use inverted commas: Guiding questions: indirect speech. In many cases, the form of the noun or pronoun is the only way that you can tell who is doing something, to whom it is being done, for whom it is being done, etc.